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2021年考研英语阅读理解点评解析(长春新东方)

2021-01-01 23:04

来源:长春新东方

作者:王帅

2021考研真题答案及解析>>免费领直播课
公共课 政治 英语一 英语二
数学一 数学二 数学三

  2021考研初试12月26~27日进行,2021考研初试情况(点击查看》》2021考研初试真题及答案解析专题),第一时间为考生提供考研真题答案及答案解析内容,同时新东方考研教师将为考生提供视频直播解析。直播入口|考研真题答案专区

  Text 1

  How can Britain train operators possibly justify yet another increase to rail passenger fares? It has become a grimly reliable annual ritual: every January the cost of travelling by train rises, imposing a significant extra burden on those who have no option but to use the rail network to get to work or otherwise. This year’s rise, an average of 2.7 per cent, may be a fraction lower than last year’s, but it is still well above the official Consumer Price Index (CPI) measure of inflation.

  Successive governments have permitted such increases on the grounds that the cost of investing in and running the rail network should be borne by those who use it, rather than the general taxpayer. Why, the argument goes, should a car-driving pensioner from Lincolnshire have to subsidise the daily commute of a stockbroker from Surrey? Equally, there is a sense that the travails of commuters in the South East, many of whom will face among the biggest rises, have received too much attention compared to those who must endure the relatively poor infrastructure of the Midlands and the North.

  However, over the past 12 months, those commuters have also experienced some of the worst rail strikes in years. It is all very well train operators trumpeting the improvements they are making to the network, but passengers should be able to expect a basic level of service for the substantial sums they are now paying to travel. The responsibility for the latest wave of strikes rests on the unions. However, there is a strong case that those who have been worst affected by industrial action should receive compensation for the disruption they have suffered.

  The Government has pledged to change the law to introduce a minimum service requirement so that, even when strikes occur, services can continue to operate. This should form part of a wider package of measures to address the long-running problems on Britain’s railways. Yes, more investment is needed, but passengers will not be willing to pay more indefinitely if they must also endure cramped, unreliable services, punctuated by regular chaos when timetables are changed, or planned maintenance is managed incompetently. The threat of nationalisation may have been seen off for now, but it will return with a vengeance if the justified anger of passengers is not addressed in short order.

  21. The author holds that this year’s increase in rail passengers fares

  A. will ease train operation’s burden.

  B. has kept pace with inflation.

  C. is a big surprise to commuters.

  D. remains an unreasonable measure.

  22. The stockbroker in 2 is used to stand for

  A. car drivers

  B. rail travellers

  C. local investors

  D. ordinary taxpayers

  23. It is indicated in 3 that train operators

  A. are offering compensations to commuters.

  B. are trying to repair relations with the unions.

  C. have failed to provide an adequate service.

  D. have suffered huge losses owing to the strikes.

  24. If unable to calm down passengers, the railways may have to face

  A. the loss of investment.

  B. the collapse of operations.

  C. a reduction of revenue.

  D. a change of ownership.

  25. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?

  A. Who Are to Blame for the Strikes?

  B. Constant Complaining Doesn't Work

  C. Can Nationalization Bring Hope?

  D. Ever-rising Fares Aren't Sustainable

  【逐题解析】

  21. D细节题。

  本题就作者观点进行提问,根据题干关键词thisyear’sincrease和railpassengersfares,可以定位到文章第一段。文章开头作者提出疑问,为何铁路运营商进行了新一轮的票价上涨?可以看出作者对票价上涨持负面态度。而选项中只有D中unreasonable体现了负面的感情色彩,因此D为正确答案。

  选项A与B为偷梁换柱。选项A通过burden定位到第一段第二句,但ease与原文imposing a significant extra burden(施加额外的负担)不符;选项B通过inflation定位到第一段末句,但kept pace with(同步)与原文above(超过/在……上)不符。选项C为无中生有。

  22. B例证题。

  根据题干中stockbroker定位到第二段第二句,而提问standfor表示需要有指代,则定位点在第一句,选项B中rail travellers(铁路乘客)与其中those who use it(铁路的使用者)为同义替换。选项A不在正确选项定位句中,则排除;选项D在定位点中,但原文中general taxpayer前有ratherthan进行否定,则排除;选项C为无中生有。

  23. C推理题。

  根据题干中train operators定位到第三段第二句,重点关注but后的信息,其中表示“乘客应该(should)期待享受与能够与票价匹配的基本服务(service)”,则C选项“没能(failto)提供足够的服务”为此信息的同义替换。选项ABD均不在定位点,则皆可排除。

  24. B细节题。

  根据题干“unable to calm down passengers(无法安抚乘客)”可以在第四段末句中找到justified anger of passengers(乘客的公愤)为其同义替换,则定位点集中在末句。文章表示,现在国有化(nationalisation)的威胁已经消失,但若乘客公愤没有解决,则它(nationalisation)将会回归(return)。则选项D中change of ownership(所有权的变更)即指原文提到的“国有化的回归”。其他选项皆与原文不符。

  25. D主旨题。

  本题以排除法为主,A只在第二段出现;B中complain为无中生有;C只在末端出现,不能概括全文。其中D为最佳选项。

  Text 2

  Last year marked the third year in a row of that Indonesia’s bleak rate of deforestation has slowed in pace. One reason for the turnaround may be the country’s antipoverty program.

  In 2007, Indonesia started phasing in a program that gives money to its poorest residents under certain conditions, such as requiring people to keep kids in school or get regular medical care. Called conditional cash transfers or CCTs, these social assistance programs are designed to reduce inequality and break the cycle of poverty. They’re already used in dozens of countries worldwide. In Indonesia, the program has provided enough food and medicine to substantially reduce severe growth problems among children.

  But CCT programs don’t generally consider effects on the environment. In fact, poverty alleviation and environmental protection are often viewed as conflicting goals, says Paul Ferraro, an economist at Johns Hopkins University.

  That’s because economic growth can be correlated with environmental degradation, while protecting the environment is sometimes correlated with greater poverty. However, those correlations don’t prove cause and effect. The only previous study analyzing causality, based on an area in Mexico that had instituted CCTs, supported the traditional view. There, as people got more money, some of them may have more cleared land for cattle to raise for meat, Ferraro says.

  Such programs do not have to negatively affect the environment, though. Ferraro wanted to see if Indonesia’s poverty-alleviation program was affecting deforestation. Indonesia has the third-largest area of tropical forest in the world and one of the highest deforestation rates.

  Ferraro analyzed satellite data showing annual forest loss from 2008 to 2012 — including during Indonesia’s phase — in of the antipoverty program — in 7,468 forested villages across 15 provinces and multiple islands. The duo separated the effects of the CCT program on forest loss from other factors, like weather and macroeconomic changes, which were also affecting forest loss. With that, “we see that the program is associated with a 30 percent reduction in deforestation,” Ferraro says.

  That’s likely because the rural poor are using the money as makeshift insurance policies against inclement weather, Ferraro says. Typically, if rains are delayed, people may clear land to plant more rice to supplement their harvests. With the CCTs, individuals instead can use the money to supplement their harvests.

  Whether this research translates elsewhere is anybody’s guess. Ferraro suggests the importance of growing rice and market access. And regardless of transferability, the study shows that what’s good for people may also be good for the value of the avoided deforestation just for carbon dioxide emissions alone is more than the program costs.

  26. According to the first two paragraphs, CCT programs aim to

  A. facilitate health care reform.

  B. help poor families get better off.

  C. improve local education systems.

  D. lower deforestation rates.

  27. The study based on an area in Mexico is cited to show that

  A. cattle rearing has been a major means of livelihood for the poor.

  B. CCT programs have helped preserve traditional lifestyles.

  C. antipoverty efforts require the participation of local farmers.

  D. economic growth tends to cause environmental degradation.

  28. In his study about Indonesia, Ferraro intends to find out

  A. its acceptance level of CCTs.

  B. its annual rate of poverty alleviation.

  C. the relation of CCTs to its forest loss.

  D. the role of its forests in climate change.

  29. According to Ferraro, the CCT program in Indonesia is most valuable in that

  A. it will benefit other Asian countries.

  B. it will reduce regional inequality.

  C. it can protect the environment.

  D. it can boost grain production.

  30. What is the text centered on?

  A. The effects of a program.

  B. The debates over a program.

  C. The process of a study.

  D. The transferability of a study.

  【逐题解析】

  26.B细节题。

  根据题干中CCT programs aim to(目的),则可以定位到第二段第二句。其中are designed to(被设计来……)为aimto的同义替换,则正确答案为to之后的信息。选项B中帮助贫困家庭(poor families)变好(better)为文中“打破贫困问题的循环(break the cycle of poverty)”的同义替换。选项A由care定位到第二段第一段和第四段,但答非所问。C和D皆非第一、二段的信息。

  27. D例证题。

  根据题干Mexico可以定位到第四段第三句,而第四句there(那里)也指Mexico(墨西哥),则例子范围为第三、四句。因为例子需要证明观点,则正确答案应该向上找到第二句。但第二句出现指代词those,则正确选项范围需扩大到第一句。D选项中economic growth(经济增长)、cause(引起)与 environmental degradation(环境恶化)皆在原文可找到原词。因此D为正答。选项B为例子本身,不是观点,则排除;A与C在本段中皆未提及。

  28. C细节题。

  通过题干中study 、Indonesia、Ferraro定位到原文第五、六段,提问Ferraro的实验目的,则可以定位到第五段第二句,其中wanttosee(想要看看)为intends to find out(想要找出)的同义替换,则答案就在see后的部分。选项C中“CCT与森林减少(forest loss)的关系(relation)”为原文中“脱贫项目(program)正在对森林滥伐(deforestation)的产生影响(affect)”的同义替换。选项A和B中虽然提到了CCT和poverty alleviation,但CCT的“接受度(acceptance level)”与“平均比率(annual rate)”,皆未在文中出现;选项D无中生有。

  29. C细节题。

  根据题干中most valuable可以定位到全文末句,则可以看出最大的价值(value)在于对环境的影响(avoiddeforestation),选项中唯有C涉及“环境”(protect the environment),则C为正确答案。选项A中由other Asian countries可以找到本段第一句中elsewhere与其为同义替换,但原文中表示这仍然是一个猜测(guess),A中表示将要发生,与原文不符;选项D中grain production(谷物种植)与本段第二句中rice(水稻)可以构成同义替换,但并非CCT项目的价值,答非所问,则排除;选项B为本段未提及的信息,则排除。

  30.A主旨题。

  综合全文,全文一直围绕CCT项目进行,重点侧重于项目的影响。因此最佳选项为A。选项B中debate(争论)为文中未提及信息;选项C和D皆只出现在单一段落。

  Text 3

  As a historian who’s always searching for the text or the image that makes us re-evaluate the past, I’ve become preoccupied with looking for photographs that show our Victorian ancestors smiling (what better way to shatter the image of 19th-century prudery?). I’ve found quite a few, and — since I started posting them on Twitter — they have been causing quite a stir. People have been surprised to see evidence that Victorians had fun and could, and did, laugh. They are noting that the Victorians suddenly seem to become more human as the hundred-or-so years that separate us fade away through our common experience of laughter.

  Of course, I need to concede that my collection of ‘Smiling Victorians’ makes up only a tiny percentage of the vast catalogue of photographic portraiture created between 1840 and 1900, the majority of which show sitters posing miserably and stiffly in front of painted backdrops, or staring absently into the middle distance. How do we explain this trend?

  During the 1840s and 1850s, in the early days of photography, exposure times were notoriously long: the daguerreotype photographic method (producing an image on a silvered copper plate) could take several minutes to complete, resulting in blurred images as sitters shifted position or adjusted their limbs. The thought of holding a fixed grin as the camera performed its magical duties was too much to contemplate, and so a non-committal blank stare became the norm.

  But exposure times were much quicker by the 1880s, and the introduction of the Box Brownie and other portable cameras meant that, though slow by today’s digital standards, the exposure was almost instantaneous. Spontaneous smiles were relatively easy to capture by the 1890s, so we must look elsewhere for an explanation of why Victorians still hesitated to smile.

  One explanation might be the loss of dignity displayed through a cheesy grin. “Nature gave us lips to conceal our teeth,” ran one popular Victorian saying, alluding to the fact that before the birth of proper dentistry, mouths were often in a shocking state of hygiene. A flashing set of healthy and clean, regular ‘pearly whites’ was a rare sight in Victorian society, the preserve of the super-rich (and even then, dental hygiene was not guaranteed).

  A toothy grin (especially when there were gaps or blackened teeth) lacked class: drunks, tramps, and music hall performers might gurn and grin with a smile as wide as Lewis Carroll’s gum-exposing Cheshire Cat, but it was not a becoming look for properly bred persons. Even Mark Twain, a man who enjoyed a hearty laugh, said that when it came to photographic portraits there could be “nothing more damning than a silly, foolish smile fixed forever”.

  31. According to Paragraph 1, the author’s posts on Twitter

  A. changed people’s impression of the Victorians.

  B. highlighted social media’s role in Victorian studies.

  C. re-evaluated the Victorians’ notion of public image.

  D. illustrated the development of Victorian photography.

  32. What does author say about the Victorian portraits he has collected?

  A. They are in popular use among historians.

  B. They are rare among photographs of that age.

  C. They mirror 19th-century social conventions.

  D. They show effects of different exposure times.

  33. What might have kept the Victorians from smiling for pictures in the 1890s?

  A. Their inherent social sensitiveness.

  B. Their tension before the camera.

  C. Their distrust of new inventions.

  D. Their unhealthy dental condition.

  34. Mark Twain is quoted to show that the disapproval of smiles in pictures was

  A. a deep-root belief.

  B. a misguided attitude.

  C. a controversial view.

  D. a thought-provoking idea.

  35. Which of the following questions does the text answer?

  A. Why did most Victorians look stern in photographs?

  B. Why did the Victorians start to view photographs?

  C. What made photography develop slowly in the Victorian period?

  D. How did smiling in photographs become a post-Victorian norm?

  【逐题解析】

  31. A细节题。

  根据题干中posts 和Twitter定位到第一段第二句,文中表示作者推发推特的行为引起了一次骚动(stir)。接下来对与stir进行了具体阐述,人们发现维多利亚时期的人们是可以笑(couldlaugh)的并且比我们的固有印象中更“像”人类(morehuman)。因此选项A中“改变(change)了人们对于维多利亚时期人们的的印象(impression)”为原文同义替换。虽然其余选项中都涉及Victorian,但选项B中“社交媒体(socialmedia)的作用(role)”,选项C中的“观念(notion)”以及选项D中“照相(photography)的发展(development)”均在文章中没有提及,故予以排除。

  32. B细节题。

  本题提问作者观点,通过题干中Victorian portraits和collected定位到第二段第一句。文中强调了照片数量的占比(tiny percentage和majority),而选项B中rare(罕见)与数量相关,则选择B。而选项A中的“使用(use)”情况、选项C中的“社交传统(socialconvention)”以及选项D中的“曝光时代(exposure times)的影响(effects)”均为文中未提及的信息。

  33. D推理题。

  通过题干中kept the Victorians from smiling与 1890s可以定位到文中第四段末句。末句中提示解释(explanation)在别处(elsewhere),则需把定位范围扩大到第五段。第五段首句指出“一个解释(oneexplanation)”可能是“丧失尊严(loss of dignity)”,第二句进一步进行阐释“丧失尊严”的实质,即笑则露齿,而维多利亚时期的人们认为嘴唇是用来“隐藏牙齿(conceal our teeth)”,暗指(allude)在口腔医学诞生之前,口腔卫生(hygiene)令人堪忧(shocking state)。因此,维多利亚时期的人们不笑的真正原因在于卫生问题,而选项D中“不健康的口腔状况(unhealthy dental condition)”为此信息的最佳匹配。其余选项皆与原文无关。

  34. A例证题。

  根据题干Mark Twain可定位到文章末句为事例范围,则所证明的观点为末段首句,重点观察but后的信息,即对有教养的人(properly bred persons)来说并不得体(becoming),则可以推断在照片中不笑的行为是一个“根深蒂固的观点(a deep-root belief)”,故选择A。其他选项皆不符合文意。

  35. A主旨题。

  全文围绕维多利亚时期的人们为何不笑而展开,为核心论点,则选择A。其它选项皆为文中细节,不符合文章主旨原则。

  Text 4

  From the early days of broadband, advocates for consumers and web-based companies worried that the cable and phone companies selling broadband connections had the power and incentive to favor affiliated websites over their rivals. That’s why there has been such a strong demand for rules that would prevent broadband providers from picking winners and losers online, preserving the freedom and innovation that have been the lifeblood of the internet.

  Yet that demand has been almost impossible to fill—in part because of pushback from broadband providers, anti-regulatory conservatives and the courts. A federal appeals court weighed in again Tuesday, but instead of providing a badly needed resolution, it only prolonged the fight. At issue before the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit was the latest take of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) on net neutrality, adopted on a party-line vote in 2017. The Republican-penned order not only eliminated the strict net neutrality rules the FCC had adopted when it had a Democratic majority in 2015, but rejected the commission’s authority to require broadband providers to do much of anything. The order also declared that state and local governments couldn’t regulate broadband providers either.

  The commission argued that other agencies would protect against anti-competitive behavior, such as a broadband-providing conglomerate like AT&T favoring its own video-streaming service at the expense of Netflix and Apple TV. Yet the FCC also ended the investigations of broadband providers that imposed data caps on their rivals’ streaming services but not their own.

  On Tuesday, the appeals court unanimously upheld the 2017 order deregulating broadband providers, citing a Supreme Court ruling from 2005 that upheld a similarly deregulatory move. But Judge Patricia Millett rightly argued in a concurring opinion that “the result is unhinged from the realities of modern broadband service,” and said Congress or the Supreme Court could intervene to “avoid trapping Internet regulation in technological anachronism.”

  In the meantime, the court threw out the FCC’s attempt to block all state rules on net neutrality, while preserving the commission’s power to preempt individual state laws that undermine its order. That means more battles like the one now going on between the Justice Department and California, which enacted a tough net neutrality law in the wake of the FCC’s abdication.

  The endless legal battles and back-and-forth at the FCC cry out for Congress to act. It needs to give the commission explicit authority once and for all to bar broadband providers from meddling in the traffic on their network and to create clear rules protecting openness and innovation online.

  36. There has long been concern that broadband provides would

  A. bring web-based firms under control.

  B. slow down the traffic on their network.

  C. show partiality in treating clients.

  D. intensify competition with their rivals.

  37. Faced with the demand for net neutrality rules, the FCC

  A. Sticks to an out-of-date order.

  B. Takes an anti-regulatory stance.

  C. Has issued a special resolution.

  D. Has allowed the states to intervene.

  38. What can be learned about AT&T from Paragraph 3?

  A. It protects against unfair competition.

  B. It engages in anti-competitive practices.

  C. It is under the FCC’s investigation.

  D. It is in pursuit of quality service.

  39. Judge Patricia Millett argues that the appeals court’s decision

  A. focuses on trivialities.

  B. conveys an ambiguous message.

  C. is at odds with its earlier rulings.

  D. is out of touch with reality.

  40. What does the author argue in the last paragraph?

  A. Congress needs to take action to ensure net neutrality.

  B. The FCC should be put under strict supervision.

  C. Rules need to be set to diversify online services.

  D. Broadband providers’ rights should be protected.

  【逐题解析】

  36. C细节题。

  根据题干concern和 broadband provides可以定位到第一段首句,其中涉及“支持(favor)附属网站”,有明显态度偏好,而选项中只有C中出现partiality(偏袒),则选择C。其他选项并没有明显态度指向,皆非文章所指。

  37. B细节题

  根据题干中net neutrality rules和the FCC定位到文章第二段第四句和第五句,可以发现此处出现了notonly…but……与also的并列结构,则可以通过并列结构进行推断。其中出现了“反对权威(reject…authority)”与“政府不能约束(couldn’t regulate)”的信息,则可以推出FCC是“反制约立场(anti-regulatory stance)”。其他选项皆不符合文意。

  38. B推理题。

  根据题干AT&T可以定位到第三段第一句,AT&T处于列举处,则需向前找到上义词otheragencies,则定位点精确到agencies的后面:保护反竞争的行为(protect against anti-competitive),则直接可以对应到选项A和B,但选项A中的“不公平竞争(unfair competition)”为原文anti-competition的概念偷换,则排除选择B。其余选项皆与文意无关。

  39.D细节题。

  本题就Judge Patricia Millett的观点进行提问,可以定位到第四段第二句。文中指出,结果(result)脱离实际(unhinged from the realities),并且国会与最高法院可以加以干涉。则选项D中out of touch with reality(与现实脱轨)为文中的同义替换。其他选项内容文中并未涉及。

  40.A细节题。

  本题就末段中作者观点进行提问。一般来说,全文末段往往为作者观点的集中体现。首句指出呼吁(cryoutfor)国会(Congress)采取行动。而第二句为it做主语,指前文的Congress,则可以推断,作者把目光集中在了国会身上,则选择A。选项D中broadband providers在文中有被提及,但并非论述重点,且存在细节拼凑的错误,故排除;选项B和C中只有单个单词(FCC/online)在文中出现,但其余信息与末段内容无关。

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