新东方网>大学教育>考研>考研试题>历年真题>外语>正文

2020年考研英语一历年真题阅读部分:2008

2019-07-22 17:30

来源:新东方网整理

作者:

  Text 4

  In 1784, five years before he became president of the United States, George Washington, 52, was nearly toothless. So he hired a dentist to transplant nine teeth into his jaw--having extracted them from the mouths of his slaves.

  That's a far different image from the cherry-tree-chopping George most people remember from their history books. But recently, many historians have begun to focus on the role slavery played in the lives of the founding generation. They have been spurred in part by DNA evidence made available in 1998, which almost certainly proved Thomas Jefferson had fathered at least one child with his slave Sally Hemings. And only over the past 30 years have scholars examined history from the bottom up. Works by Gore Vidal, Henry Wiencek, and Garry Wills reveal the moral compromises made by the nation's early leaders and the fragile nature of the country's infancy. More significant, they argue that many of the Founding Fathers knew slavery was wrong--and yet most did little to fight it.

  More than anything, the historians say, the founders were hampered by the culture of their time. While Washington and Jefferson privately expressed distaste for slavery (Jefferson once called it an "execrable commerce"), they also understood that it was part of the political and economic bedrock of the country they helped to create.

  Political capital. For one thing, the South could not afford to part with its slaves. Owning slaves was "like having a large bank account," says Wiencek, author of An Imperfect God: George Washington, His Slaves, and the Creation of America. The southern states would not have signed the Constitution without protections for the "peculiar institution," including a clause that counted a slave as three fifths of a man for purposes of congressional representation.

  And the statesmen's political lives depended on slavery. The three-fifths formula handed Jefferson his narrow victory in the presidential election of 1800 by inflating the votes of the southern states in the Electoral College. Once in office, Jefferson extended slavery with the Louisiana Purchase in 1803; the new land was carved into 13 states, including three slave states.

  Still, Jefferson freed Hemings's children--though not Hemings herself or his approximately 150 other slaves. Washington, who had begun to believe that all men were created equal after observing the valor of black soldiers during the Revolutionary War, overcame the strong opposition of his relatives to grant his slaves their freedom in his will. Only a decade earlier, such an act would have required legislative approval in Virginia.

  36. George Washington’s dental surgery is mentioned to_____________.

  [A] show the primitive medical practice in the past

  [B] demonstrate the cruelty of slavery in his days

  [C] stress the role of slaves in the U.S history

  [D] reveal some unknown aspect of his life

  37. We may infer from the second paragraph that____________.

  [A] DNA technology has been widely applied to history research

  [B] in its early days the U.S was confronted with delicate situations

  [C] historians deliberately made up some stories of Jefferson’s life

  [D] political compromises are easily found throughout the U.S history

  38. What do we learn from the text about Jefferson?

  [A] His political view changed his attitude towards slavery.

  [B] His status as a father made him free the child slaves.

  [C] His attitude towards slavery was complex.

  [D] His affair with a slave stained his prestige.

  39. Which of the following is true according to the text?

  [A] Some Founding Fathers benefit politically from slavery.

  [B] Slaves in the old days did not have the right to vote.

  [C] Slave owners usually had large savings accounts.

  [D] Slavery was regarded as a peculiar institution.

  40. Washington’s decision to free slaves originated from his___________.

  [A] moral considerations

  [B] military experience

  [C] financial conditions

  [D] political stand

2020考研交流群(已有1000+名考研er加入)

考研热门资讯、院校信息、各科辅导,请扫二维码加入我们! 

资料下载

  • 考研政治思维导图

    3342次下载 点击下载
  • 考研政治基础阶段复习

    2621次下载 点击下载
  • 马原常见易错点总结

    4734次下载 点击下载
  • 中国最好学科排名

    1854次下载 点击下载
  • 考研经典长难句汇总

    1391次下载 点击下载
  • 考研英语高分作文句型及模板

    1391次下载 点击下载
名称名称
300次下载

微信扫码关注"新东方四六级考研"服务号

回复""立刻获取!

2019考研真题及答案解析下载

手机号

考研头条

  • 备考干货
  • 择校选专业
  • 报考信息
  • 经验心态

          新东方考研课程专区

          班级名称 上课地点 上课时间 费用 查看详情

          焦点推荐

          精品直播

          版权及免责声明

          凡本网注明"稿件来源:新东方"的所有文字、图片和音视频稿件,版权均属新东方教育科技集团(含本网和新东方网) 所有,任何媒体、网站或个人未经本网协议授权不得转载、链接、转贴或以其他任何方式复制、发表。已经本网协议授权的媒体、网站,在下载使用时必须注明"稿件来源:新东方",违者本网将依法追究法律责任。

          本网未注明"稿件来源:新东方"的文/图等稿件均为转载稿,本网转载仅基于传递更多信息之目的,并不意味着赞同转载稿的观点或证实其内容的真实性。如其他媒体、网站或个人从本网下载使用,必须保留本网注明的"稿件来源",并自负版权等法律责任。如擅自篡改为"稿件来源:新东方",本网将依法追究法律责任。

          如本网转载稿涉及版权等问题,请作者见稿后在两周内速来电与新东方网联系,电话:010-60908555。

          猜你喜欢

          四六级英语拓展