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2019考研英语:历年翻译真题之2018英语一

2018-08-30 13:59

来源:新东方网整理

作者:

  Part C

  Directions:

  Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  Shakespeare's life time was coincident with a period of extraordinary activity and achievement in the drama. (46) By the date of his birth Europe was witnessing the passing of the religious drama, and the creation of new forms under the incentive of classical tragedy and comedy. These new forms were at first mainly written by scholars and performed by amateurs, but in England, as everywhere else in western Europe, the growth of a class of professional actors was threatening to make the drama popular, whether it should be new or old, classical or medieval, literary or farcical. Court, school organizations of amateurs, and the traveling actors were all rivals in supplying a widespread desire for dramatic entertainment, and (47) no boy who went a grammar school could be ignorant that the drama was a form of literature which gave glory to Greece and Rome and might yet bring honor to England.

  When Shakespeare was twelve years old, the first public playhouse was built in London. For a time literature showed no interest in this public stage. Plays aiming at litereary distinction were written for school or court, or for the choir boys of St. Paul's and the royal chapel, who, however, gave plays in public as well as at court. (48) But the professional compannies prospered in their permanent theaters, and university men with literature ambitions were quick to turn to these theaters as offering means to livilihood. By the time Shakespeare was twenty-five, Lyly, Peele, and Greene had made comedies that were at once popular and literary; Kyd had written a tragedy that crowded the pit; and Marlowe had brought poetry and genius to triumph on the common stage - where they had played no part since the death of Euripides. (49) A native literary drama had been created, its alliance with the public playhouses established, and at least some of its great traditions had begun.

  The development of the Elizabethan drama for the next twenty-five years is of exceptional interest to students of literary history, for in this brief period we may trace the beginning, growth, blossoming, and decay of many kinds of plays, and of may great careers. We are amazed today at the mere number of plays produced, as well as by the number of dramatists writing at thesame time for this London of two hundred thousand inhabitants. (50) To realize how great was the dramatic activity, we must remember further that hosts of plays have been lost, and that probably there is no author of note whose entire work has survived.

  译文答案

  46) By the date of his birth Europe was witnessing the passing of the religious drama, and the creation of new forms under the incentive of classical tragedy and comedy.

  【解析】本句主干为Europe was witnessing the passing and the creation。句首by the date of his birth,考查代词指代,回上文可知为:莎士比亚。under the incentive of classical tragedy and comedy为定语,修饰the creation。

  【参考译文】莎士比亚出生之时,宗教戏剧在欧洲正逐渐消亡,而在经典悲剧和戏剧的激发下,这里正在形成各种新的戏剧形式。

  47) no boy who went to a grammar school could be ignorant that the drama was a form of literature which gave glory to Greece and Rome and might yet bring honor to England.

  【解析】本句的主干为:no boy could be ignorant that...,意思为:没有人会不了解...,可以翻译成:人都了解...。who went to a grammar school为定语从句,修饰no boy,可以前置翻译为:去文法学校的人都了解....。之后为that引导的宾语从句,宾语从句的主干为the drama was a form of literature,之后为which引导的定语从句,修饰a form of literature,定语从句中might yet do意思为:迟早会...,定语从句可采用后置的翻译方法:它已经给希腊和罗马带来了荣耀,也可能会给英国带来荣耀。

  【参考译文】那些去文法学校的人都知道,戏剧是文学的一种形式,它已经给希腊和罗马带来了荣耀,也迟早会给英国带来荣耀。

  48) But the professional companies prospered in their permanent theaters, and university men with literary ambitions were quick to turn to these theaters as offering a means of livelihood.

  【解析】本句为并列句。前半句the professional companies专业公司,在本文中指的是专业戏剧公司。permanent意为:永久的,固定的,their permanent theaters可翻译为:固定的剧院。前半句可翻译为:但是,专业戏剧公司有了固定的剧院而繁荣发展起来。后半句with literary ambitions修饰university men,可断句翻译为:有文学抱负的大学生迅速投身这些剧院,将其视为谋生的手段。

  【参考译文】但是,专业戏剧公司在固定的剧院中繁荣发展起来,有文学抱负的大学生迅速投身这些剧院,并将其视为谋生的手段。

  49) A native literary drama had been created, its alliance with the public playhouses established, and at least some of its great traditions had been begun.

  【解析】本句为并列句,前半句主干为a native literary drama had been created,可翻译为:一种当地的文学戏剧形式已经被创立,其中被动语态可以直接翻译为:产生出来。its alliance with the public playhouses established为独立主格结构,意思为:它和公共剧院的联盟关系被确立,可翻译为:它与公共剧院建立了联盟关系。后半句主干为:traditions had been begun,可翻译为:最终这种戏剧的一些伟大传统也开始出现。

  【参考译文】一种当地的文学戏剧艺术已经产生了,它与公众剧院也建立了联盟关系,而最终这种戏剧的一些伟大传统也开始出现。

  50) To realize how great was the dramatic activity, we must remember further that hosts of plays have been lost, and that probably there is no author of note whose entire work has survived.

  【解析】本句主干为 we must remember that... and that...。句首不定式短语中to realize后为how引导的宾语从句,可以翻译为:要想知道戏剧艺术的伟大之处。further为状语,修饰remember,可翻译为:还必须记住。hosts of plays翻译为:大量的戏剧作品,其种plays应翻译为“戏剧作品”。第二个that引导的宾语从句的主干为there is no author,之后of note意思为:重要的、引人注目的、著名的。之后为whose引导的定语从句,修饰author of note,定语从句可用融合法,翻译为:没有著名戏剧作者的完整作品保存下来。

  【参考译文】要想知道戏剧艺术的伟大之处,我们还必须记住大量的戏剧作品已经丢失,而且或许我们也不会知道那些没有完整作品保存下来的剧作家。

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