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2019考研英语:历年翻译真题之2009英语一

2018-08-30 11:11

来源:新东方网整理

作者:

  Part C

  Directions:

  Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written carefully on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)

  There is a marked difference between the education which every one gets from living with others, and the deliberate educating of the young. In the former case the education is incidental; it is natural and important, but it is not the express reason of the association. (46) It may be said that the measure of the worth of any social institution is its effect in enlarging and improving experience; but this effect is not a part of its original motive. Religious associations began, for example, in the desire to secure the favor of overruling powers and to ward off evil influences; family life in the desire to gratify appetites and secure family perpetuity; systematic labor, for the most part, because of enslavement to others, etc. (47) Only gradually was the by-product of the institution noted, and only more gradually still was this effect considered as a directive factor in the conduct of the institution. Even today, in our industrial life, apart from certain values of industriousness and thrift, the intellectual and emotional reaction of the forms of human association under which the world's work is carried on receives little attention as compared with physical output.

  But in dealing with the young, the fact of association itself as an immediate human fact, gains in importance. (48) While it is easy to ignore in our contact with them the effect of our acts upon their disposition, it is not so easy as in dealing with adults. The need of training is too evident; the pressure to accomplish a change in their attitude and habits is too urgent to leave these consequences wholly out of account. (49) Since our chief business with them is to enable them to share in a common life we cannot help considering whether or no we are forming the powers which will secure this ability.If humanity has made some headway in realizing that the ultimate value of every institution is its distinctively human effect we may well believe that this lesson has been learned largely through dealings with the young.

  (50) We are thus led to distinguish, within the broad educational process which we have been so far considering, a more formal kind of education -- that of direct tuition or schooling. In undeveloped social groups, we find very little formal teaching and training. These groups mainly rely for instilling needed dispositions into the young upon the same sort of association which keeps the adults loyal to their group.

  重点句解析

  46. 本句考点:宾语从句,of 短语作定语,代词指代, but引导并列句

  结构分析:句子主干是:it may be said that…, but this effect… its effect及its original motive.中it在句中指代social institution。

  参考译文:可以说,任何社会制度的价值在于它对扩大和改进经验方面的影响,但是这种影响并不是它原来的动机的一部分。

  47. 本句考点:强调句,分词结构作后置定语, 省略

  结构分析:强调句的正常语序是:the by-product of the institution was noted Only gradually, and this effect …was only still more gradually (noted). considered as a directive factor in the conduct of the institution作this effect的后置定语。

  参考译文:一种制度的副产品,只是逐步被注意到的,而这种效果被视为实施这种制度的一个指导性因素更加缓慢得多。

  48. 本句考点:比较状语从句,动宾分隔

  结构分析:本句主干是while引导的一个比较状语从句。in our contact with 作为一个插入成分,分隔了ignore和它的宾语the effect of…。

  参考译文:在和他们(年轻人)接触的时候,虽然容易忽略我们的行动对他们的倾向的影响,但是也不像与成年人打交道那么简单。

  49. 本句考点:since引导的原因状语从句,代词指代,宾语从句,宾语从句嵌套定语从句。

  结构分析:本句主干是Since… we cannot help considering…其中whether or no we are forming the powers which will secure this ability作cannot help considering的宾语,which will secure this ability作为嵌套定语从句修饰the powers。

  参考译文:既然我们的主要任务在于使年轻人参与共同生活,我们禁不住考虑我们是否在形成获得这种能力的力量。

  50. 本句考点:插入语,定语从句,同位语从句

  结构分析:within the broad educational process which we have been so far considering 作为插入语,which we have been so far considering为定语从句修饰process,本句主干是:We are thus led to distinguish a more formal kind of education. that of direct tuition or schooling与a more formal kind of education 是同位语关系。

  参考译文:因此,我们可以在上面所考虑的广阔的教育过程之内区别出一种比较正规的教育,即直接的教导或学校教育。

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