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新东方首发2014考研英语二真题(文字版)

2014-01-05 11:27

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  2014年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试
  英语(二)试题
  Section I  Use of English
  Directions:
  Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
  Thinner isn't always better. A number of studies have __1___ that normal-weight people are in fact at higher risk of some diseases compared to those who are overweight. And there are health conditions for which being overweight is actually ___2___. For example, heavier women are less likely to develop calcium deficiency than thin women. ___3___ among the elderly, being somewhat overweight is often an ___4___ of good health.
  Of even greater ___5___ is the fact that obesity turns out to be very difficult to define. It is often defined ___6___ body mass index, or BMI. BMI ___7__ body mass divided by the square of height. An adult with a BMI of 18 to 25 is often considered to be normal weight. Between 25 and 30 is overweight. And over 30 is considered obese. Obesity, ___8___,can be divided into moderately obese, severely obese, and very severely obese.
  While such numerical standards seem ___9___, they are not. Obesity is probably less a matter of weight than body fat. Some people with a high BMI are in fact extremely fit, ___10___ others with a low BMI may be in poor___11___.For example, many collegiate and professional football players ___12___  as obese, though their percentage body fat is low. Conversely, someone with a small frame may have high body fat but a ___13___  BMI.
  Today we have a(an) ___14___ to label obesity as a disgrace. The overweight are sometimes___15___ in the media with their faces covered. Stereotypes ___16___ with obesity include laziness, lack of will power, and lower prospects for success. Teachers, employers, and health professionals have been shown to harbor biases against the obese. ___17___ very young children tend to look down on the overweight, and teasing about body build has long been a problem in schools.
  Negative attitudes toward obesity, ___18___  in health concerns, have stimulated a number of anti-obesity ___19___. My own hospital system has banned sugary drinks from its facilities.Many employers have instituted weight loss and fitness initiatives. Michelle Obama has launched a high-visibility campaign__20___  childhood obesity, even claiming that it represents our greatest national security threat.
  1. [A] denied [B] conduced [C] doubled [D] ensured
  2. [A] protective [B] dangerous [C] sufficient [D]troublesome
  3. [A] Instead [B] However [C] Likewise [D] Therefore
  4. [A] indicator [B] objective [C] origin [D] example
  5. [A] impact [B] relevance [C] assistance [D] concern
  6. [A] in terms of [B] in case of [C] in favor of [D] in of
  7. [A] measures [B] determines [C] equals [D] modifies
  8. [A] in essence [B] in contrast [C] in turn [D] in part
  9. [A] complicated [B] conservative [C] variable [D] straightforward
  10. [A] so [B] while [C] since [D] unless
  11. [A] shape [B] spirit [C] balance [D] taste
  12. [A] start [B] quality [C] retire [D] stay
  13. [A] strange [B] changeable [C] normal [D] constant
  14. [A] option [B] reason [C] opportunity [D] tendency
  15. [A] employed [B] pictured [C] imitated [D] monitored
  16. [A] compared [B] combined [C] settled [D] associated
  17. [A] Even [B] Still [C] Yet [D] Only
  18. [A] despised [B] corrected [C] ignored [D] grounded
  19. [A] discussions [B] businesses [C] policies [D] studies
  20. [A] for [B] against [C] with [D] without
  Section II  Reading Comprehension
  Part A
  Directions:
  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)
  Text 1
  What would you do with 590m? This is now a question for Gloria Mackenzie, an 84-year-old widow who recently emerged from her small, tin-roofed house in Florida to collect the biggest undivided lottery jackpot in history. If she hopes her new-found for tune will yield lasting feelings of fulfillment, she could do worse than read Happy Money by Elizabeth Dumn and Michael Norton.
  These two academics use an array of behavioral research to show that the most rewarding ways to spend money can be counterintuitive. Fantasies of great wealth often involve visions of fancy cars and extravagant homes. Yet satisfaction with these material purchases wears off fairly quickly what was once exciting and new becomes old-hat; regret creeps in. It is far better to spend money on experiences, say Ms Dumn and Mr Norton, like interesting trips, unique meals or even going to the cinema. These purchases often become more valuable with time-as stories or memories-particularly if they involve feeling more connected to others.
  This slim volume is packed with tips to help wage slaves as well as lottery winners get the most "happiness bang for your buck." It seems most people would be better off if they could shorten their commutes to work, spend more time with friends and family and less of it watching television (something the average American spends a whopping two months a year doing, and is hardly jollier for it).Buying gifts or giving to charity is often more pleasurable than purchasing things for oneself, and luxuries are most enjoyable when they are consumed sparingly. This is apparently the reason MacDonald's restricts the availability of its popular McRib - a marketing trick that has turned the pork sandwich into an object of obsession.
  Readers of "Happy Money" are clearly a privileged lot, anxious about fulfillment, not hunger. Money may not quite buy happiness, but people in wealthier countries are generally happier than those in poor ones. Yet the link between feeling good and spending money on others can be seen among rich and poor people around the world, and scarcity enhances the pleasure of most things for most people. Not everyone will agree with the authors' policy ideas, which range from mandating more holiday time to reducing tax incentives for American homebuyers. But most people will come away from this book believing it was money well spent.
  21. According to Dumn and Norton, which of the following is the most rewarding purchase?
  [A]A big house   [B]A special tour    [C]A stylish car    [D]A rich meal
  22. The author's attitude toward Americans' watching TV is________.
  [A]critical       [B]supportive       [C]sympathetic    [D]ambiguous
  23. Macrib is mentioned in paragraph 3 to show that_______.
  [A]consumers are sometimes irrational
  [B]popularity usually comes after quality
  [C]marketing tricks are after effective
  [D]rarity generally increases pleasure
  24. According to the last paragraph, Happy Money_______.
  [A]has left much room for readers'criticism
  [B]may prove to be a worthwhile purchase
  [C]has predicted a wider income gap in the us
  [D]may give its readers a sense of achievement
  25. This text mainly discusses how to______.
  [A]balance feeling good and spending money
  [B]spend large sums of money won in lotteries
  [C]obtain lasting satisfaction from money spent
  [D]become more reasonable in spending on luxuries
  Text 2
  An article in Scientific America has pointed out that empirical research says that, actually, you think you're more beautiful than you are. We have a deep-seated need to feel good about ourselves and we naturally employ a number of self-enhancing strategies to research into what the call the "above average effect", or "illusory superiority", and shown that, for example, 70% of us rate ourselves as above average in leadership, 93% in driving and 85% at getting on well with others-all obviously statistical impossibilities.
  We rose tint our memories and put ourselves into self-affirming situations. We become defensive when criticized, and apply negative stereotypes to others to boost our own esteem, we stalk around thinking we're hot stuff.
  Psychologist and behavioral scientist Nicholas Epley oversaw a key studying into self-enhancement and attractiveness. Rather that have people simply rate their beauty compress with others, he asked them to identify an original photogragh of themselves' from a lineup including versions that had been altered to appear more and less attractive. Visual recognition, reads the study, is "an automatic psychological process occurring rapidly and intuitively with little or no apparent conscious deliberation". If the subjects quickly chose a falsely flattering image- which must did- they genuinely believed it was really how they looked. Epley found no significant gender difference in responses. Nor was there any evidence that, those who self-enhance the must (that is, the participants who thought the most positively doctored picture were real) were doing so to make up for profound insecurities. In fact those who thought that the images higher up the attractiveness scale were real directly corresponded with those who showed other makers for having higher self-esteem. "I don't think the findings that we having have are any evidence of personal delusion", says Epley. "It's a reflection simply of people generally thinking well of themselves'. If you are depressed, you won't be self-enhancing. Knowing the results of Epley 's study,it makes sense that why people heat photographs of themselves Viscerally-on one level, they don't even recognize the person in the picture as themselves, Face book therefore ,is a self-enhancer's paradise, where people can share only the most flattering photos, the cream of their wit ,style ,beauty, intellect and lifestyle it's not that people's profiles are dishonest, says Catalina toma of Wiscon-Madison university ,"but they portray an idealized version of themselves.
  26. According to the first paragraph, social psychologist have found that ______.
  [A] our self-ratings are unrealistically high
  [B] illusory superiority is baseless effect
  [C] our need for leadership is unnatural
  [D] self-enhancing strategies are ineffective
  27. Visual recognition is believed to be people's______.
  [A] rapid watching
  [B] conscious choice
  [C] intuitive response
  [D] automatic self-defence
  28. Epley found that people with higher self-esteem tended to______.
  [A] underestimate their insecurities
  [B] believe in their attractiveness
  [C] cover up their depressions
  [D] oversimplify their illusions
  29. The word "Viscerally"(Line 2,para.5) is closest in meaning to_____.
  [A]instinctively
  [B]occasionally
  [C]particularly
  [D]aggressively
  30. It can be inferred that Facebook is self-enhancer's paradise because people can _____.
  [A]present their dishonest profiles
  [B]define their traditional life styles
  [C]share their intellectual pursuits
  [D]withhold their unflattering sides

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